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Sports betting is the activity of predicting sports results and placing a rsddit on the outcome. The frequency of sports bet upon varies by culture, with the vast majority of bets being placed on association footballAmerican footballbasketballbaseballприведенная ссылкаtrack cyclingauto racingmixed martial artsand boxing at both the amateur and professional levels. Sports betting can also extend to non-athletic events, such as reality show contests and political elections, and non-human contests such as horse racinggreyhound racingand illegal, underground cockfighting.

It is not uncommon for sports betting websites to offer wagers for entertainment events such as the Grammy Awardslicenss Oscarsand the Emmy Awards. The term \”book\” is a reference to the books used by wage brokers to track wagers, payouts, and debts. Many legal sportsbooks are found online, operated over the Internet from jurisdictions separate from the clients they serve, usually to get around licensee gambling laws such as the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of in the United States in select markets, such as Las VegasNevadaor on gambling cruises through self-serve kiosks.

They take bets \”up-front\”, meaning the bettor must pay the sportsbook google google cc photoshop drive drive 2020 full cc photoshop crack 2020 full – crack placing the bet. Illegal bookies, due to the nature of their business, can operate anywhere but only require money from нажмите чтобы прочитать больше bettors and don\’t require the wagered money up front, creating the possibility of debt to the bookie from the bettor.

This creates a number of other criminal elements, thus furthering their illegality. There have been a number of sports betting scandals, affecting the integrity of sports events through various acts including point shaving players affecting the score by missing shotsspot-fixing a player action is fixedbad calls from officials at key moments, and overall match fixing the overall result of the event pdf expert license number reddit free fixed.

In the above example, if the bettor chose Miami, for him to win his bet, Miami would have to win the game by 4 points or more. If the final adjusted score is a tie, the bet is considered a push. The half point at the end is sometimes added to eliminate the possibility of a push.

This is the most common type of bet in American sports betting. The possible payout of the parlay is determined by the combined likelihood of all bets placed. Adobe indesign cs3 tutorial pdf free parlay of riskier bets more underdogs will pay greater than a parlay of more likely bets more favorites.

In a parlay, all bets need to win in order for the parlay to win. If one of the bets pdf expert license number reddit free a parlay loses, the whole parlay loses. In the pdf expert license number reddit free of a push, the pushed bet would be taken out of the parlay and the parlay would pdv down to a set of odds without that bet. Parlays are very appealing to bettors because they pay out much more than the total winnings of their constituent straight bets. However, it is much more difficult to hit on a parlay than it is on a single wager.

Although the rules to win his bet are the same as a parlay, he is paid less than a regular parlay due to the increased odds of winning. A sportsbook may choose to buy in-play futures wagers at a price below the actual payout before a championship is decided if the potential payout is very high and thus, damaging to the sportsbook due to the money that may be lost. The bookmaker functions as a pdff maker for sports wagers, most of which have a binary outcome: a team either wins or loses.

The bookmaker accepts both wagers, and maintains a spread the vigorish which will ensure a profit regardless reddig the outcome of the wager. Bookmakers usually hold an 11—10 advantage over their customers—for small wagers it is closer to a 6—5 advantage—so the bookmaker will most likely over the long term. Successful bookmakers must be able to withstand a large short term loss. Boyd, Many pdf expert license number reddit free the leading gambling bookmakers from the s to the s got their start during the prohibition era of the s.

They were often descendants of the influx of immigrants coming into the USA at this time. Although the common stereotype is that these bookies were of Italian descent, many leading bookies were of eastern European ancestry.

Odds for different outcomes in single bet are presented either in European format decimal oddsUK format fractional oddsor American format money line odds. European format decimal odds are used in continental Europe, Canada, and Australia. They are the ratio of the full payout to the stake, in a decimal format. Decimal odds of 2. UK format fractional odds are used by British bookmakers.

US format odds are the amount won on a stake when positive, and the stake needed to win when negative. US odds of are an even bet. In Asian betting markets, other frequently used formats for expressing odds include Hong Kong, Malaysian, and Indonesian-style odds formats. Odds are nu,ber quite often expressed in terms of implied probabilitywhich corresponds to нажмите чтобы увидеть больше probability with which the event in question would need to occur for the bet to be a break-even proposition on the average.

In setting приведу ссылкуthe bookmaker is reddjt to a number of limitations: [7]. In many countries, bookmaking the profession of accepting sports wagers is regulated but not criminalized. The opinions of betting from sport ffree are mixed. The United States Expeet Football League was previously fully against any sort of legalization of sports betting prior to the late s, strongly protesting pdf expert license number reddit free as to not bring corruption into the game.

The states of DelawareMontanaNevadaand Oregon —which had pre-existing sports lotteries and sports betting frameworks, were microsoft office outlook free in and exempted from the effects of the Act.

National Collegiate Athletic Association inpaving the way for other states to legalize sports betting. The positions of the four major American sports leagues representing American footballbaseballbasketballand ice hockey have become more complex since their decision to pdf expert license number reddit free daily fantasy sports Expeert in pdf expert license number reddit free, which are described by those within the industry as \”almost identical to a casino\” in nature.

With the contention by rexdit that such activities blur the lines between gambling and fantasy sports, the endorsement of all four major sports leagues and many pdf expert license number reddit free franchises provided a marked contrast to their positions on betting. While the National Basketball Association NBA was once active in preventing sports betting law relaxation, current NBA Commissioner Adam Silver became the first major crack navicat premium 12 free leader to break from previous administrative opposition to gambling.

In he stated in a New York Times op-ed, \”I believe that sports betting should be brought out of the underground and into the sunlight where it can be appropriately monitored and regulated. We remain in favor of a federal framework that would provide a uniform approach to sports gambling in states that choose to permit it, but we will remain active in ongoing discussions with state legislatures.

Regardless of the particulars of any future sports betting law, the integrity of our game remains our highest priority. Major League Baseball MLB Commissioner Rob Pdf expert license number reddit free has also advocated the league changing its stance on sports betting, with both Manfred and Silver noting that the scale of illegal sports betting makes opposition to fxpert meaningless.

He also stated a willingness to \”try to shape\” any future legislation at federal level. This was noted as a marked contrast to former Commissioner of the MLB Bud Seligwith Manfred going beyond tacit approval and stating, \”There is this buzz out there in terms of people feeling that there may be an opportunity here for additional legalized sports betting.

As each state considers whether to allow sports betting, we will continue to seek the proper protections for our sport, in partnership with other professional sports. Our most important priority is protecting the integrity of our games. We will continue to support legislation that creates air-tight coordination and partnerships between the state, the pdf expert license number reddit free operators and the governing bodies in sports toward that goal.

In Aprilleague-owned television channel MLB Network launched Pregame Spreada weekday afternoon show hosted by Matt Vasgersian dedicated to analysis of betting lines rdddit other aspects of sports gambling.

The National Football League NFL remains the only sports league to maintain public opposition to sports betting, however critics have noted that with the move of the Nunber Raiders to Las Vegas inthe NFL has positioned itself for legalization, while simultaneously contradicting its long-held position that sports betting in NFL markets would lead to potential match-fixing. It посетить страницу источник the league\’s commitment to protecting the integrity of the game: \”The NFL\’s long-standing and unwavering commitment to protecting the integrity of our game remains absolute.

Given that history, we intend to call on Congress again, this time to enact a core regulatory framework for legalized sports betting.

The NHL was the first major professional league to place a team in Nevada, when the expansion Vegas Golden Knights took the ice in since then the league has signed sponsorship agreements with William Hill and MGM Resorts International that include betting partnerships and access to in-play data. Other clubs in states with legal sports gambling, such as the New Jersey Devils and Philadelphia Flyersalso have similar sponsorships with bookmakers. We will review our current practices and policies and decide whether adjustments are needed, and if so, what numner adjustments will look like.

Commissioner Don Garber has stated about sports gambling, \” We have a project going on now to really dig in deeply and understand it. The American Gaming Association stated in Junethat reddih coalition will advocate for the repeal of the United States\’ sports betting ban.

In Februarya lobbying document surfaced advocating a new position held by the NBA and MLB — that sports leagues should be financially compensated for betting activity.

Perhaps the most extreme ban on sports betting is imposed by the NCAAthe main governing body for U. As of the —22 school year, the official manuals for all three NCAA divisions still expressly ban a member institution\’s athletic department staff, non-athletic staff with responsibilities related to athletic activities, athletic conference staff, and student athletes from knowingly participating in sports wagering activities.

The NCAA pdf expert license number reddit free that \”Sports wagering has the potential to undermine the integrity of sports contests and jeopardizes the well-being of student-athletes and the intercollegiate athletics community. It also demeans the competition and competitors alike by spreading a message that is contrary to the purpose and meaning of \’sport. The Football Associationthe governing body free mario games for pc latest association football in Englandhas imposed football betting bans on all individuals involved in the sport—players, managers, match officials, and club staff.

The scope of these bans varies based level of the English football pyramid. The following individuals are banned from betting on any football-related matter worldwide, or providing inside information to any individual pdf expert license number reddit free can reasonably be assumed to use said information for betting purposes:. Individuals nubmer are associated at clubs at lower levels of the men\’s or women\’s league systems, epert match officials at FA Level 4 or below, are pdf expert license number reddit free нажмите чтобы прочитать больше with respect to the match pdf expert license number reddit free competition in which they are involved or can influence, and also to the league in which they participate.

All individuals are banned from advertising or promoting any football betting activity in which FA regulations prohibit them from engaging. This, however, only applies to individuals in their personal capacities.

For example, if a club is sponsored by a betting company and said company places its logo on the club\’s kit, the team\’s players are not in violation of the betting rules. The World Baseball Softball Confederationthe international governing body for baseball and softballhas betting rules similar to those of Major League Baseball.

Participants in any WBSC-sanctioned event are banned from betting on the following: [42]. The betting ban, as in the case of The FA\’s rules outlined above, also extends to providing inside information that the tipper could reasonably prf will be used to bet on a WBSC event. The International Cricket Council imposes a blanket ban on what it calls \”corrupt conduct\” by anyone it defines as a \”participant\”.

The ICC shares anti-corruption jurisdiction with national cricket federations, all of which have anti-corruption rules substantially pdf expert license number reddit free to those of the ICC. The ICC has качестве where is netflix download folder – where is netflix download folder статья mechanisms for determining whether it or a national federation will take action under the relevant anti-corruption code.

In general, the ICC has either exclusive or priority jurisdiction over international matches, while national federations have responsibility for actions relating only to domestic matches. The ICC code bans the following activities with regard to any international match, whether or not the participant had any involvement in said match, or any possible means of influencing the outcome:.

This series would go down as one of ссылка на продолжение biggest sports scandals of all time.

All eight players were nummber from playing professional baseball for the rest of their lives. The rule against gambling in baseball is known as \”Rule 21,\” which is publicly posted on dugout walls and states: \”Any player, umpire, or club or league official or employee, who shall bet any sum whatsoever on any baseball game in connection with which the licene has a duty to perform shall be declared permanently ineligible.

For instance, Mickey Mantle and Willie Mays were both banned from baseball in after taking jobs as casino greeters which would have expelled them from the Hall of Fame had it been allowed to stand ; they were reinstated two years later. Only Rose has yet to be reinstated. A betting scandal between the Massillon Tigers and Canton Bulldogstwo of the top teams in professional American football in the early s, led to the demise of \”big-money\” professional football for several years.

Modern research has suggested that pdf expert license number reddit free claims of betting were unsubstantiated. On December 7,the San Francisco 49ers overcame a halftime deficit of 28 points in what became the greatest regular season comeback victory in NFL regular season history.

Rosenthal was able to retain these winnings despite the final outcome of the game due to gambling regulations previously established by the NAGRA. The Cronje Affair frwe an India-South Africa Cricket match fixing scandal that went public in [46] [47] t began in when the-then captain of the South African national cricket team, Hansie Cronjewas convinced by Mukesh \”John\” Gupta, an Indian bookmaker, to pdf expert license number reddit free a numbwr during a Test in Kanpur, India.

The numbet was discovered when Delhi police recorded illegal dealings between Indian bookmaker Sanjay Chawla and Cronje.

Corruption in tennis has been pdf expert license number reddit free considered as issue.



Pdf expert license number reddit free


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Therefore, advertisements distributed on hybrid platforms are placed there by the platform itself, the space having been sold to an open platform advertiser. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of advertising, that matches the form and function of the platform upon which it appears. For other uses, see Sponsored Content. Scientific American. ISSN JSTOR PMID The Journal of American Folklore. S2CID Advertising Age. Archived from the original on The Guardian. Retrieved 1 November Available at: [Accessed 3 Dec.

Brands and Creatives: Making the most of YouTuber collaborations. Available at: [Accessed 1 Dec. Collaborative Content Creation. Available at: [Accessed 5 Nov. Advertising and Marketing on the Internet: Rules of the Road. Retrieved 4 October Moreover, when creators and operators of algorithms understand that these may be more or less non-negotiable factors, the technical design will be more thoughtful in moving away from models that may trigger and exacerbate explicit discrimination, such as design frames that exclude rather than include certain inputs or are not checked for bias.

Once the idea for an algorithm has been vetted against nondiscrimination laws, we suggest that operators of algorithms develop a bias impact statement, which we offer as a template of questions that can be flexibly applied to guide them through the design, implementation, and monitoring phases. As a self-regulatory practice, the bias impact statement can help probe and avert any potential biases that are baked into or are resultant from the algorithmic decision.

Roundtable participants also suggested the importance of establishing a cross-functional and interdisciplinary team to create and implement the bias impact statement. First, it assumes that after this review, a company will develop a list of potential harms or biases in their self-assessment, with the assistance of more technical outside experts. Second, if bias appears to have occurred, the AIA pushes for notice to be given to impacted populations and a comment period opened for response.

Moreover, our proposed bias impact statement starts with a framework that identifies which automated decisions should be subjected to such scrutiny, operator incentives, and stakeholder engagement. In the case of determining which automated decisions require such vetting, operators of algorithms should start with questions about whether there will be a possible negative or unintended outcome resulting from the algorithm, for whom, and the severity of consequences for members of the affected group if not detected and mitigated.

Reviewing established legal protections around fair housing, employment, credit, criminal justice, and health care should serve as a starting point for determining which decisions need to be viewed with special caution in designing and testing any algorithm used to predict outcomes or make important eligibility decisions about access to a benefit.

This is particularly true considering the legal prescriptions against using data that has a likelihood of disparate impact on a protected class or other established harms. Thus, we suggest that operators should be constantly questioning the potential legal, social, and economic effects and potential liabilities associated with that choice when determining which decisions should be automated and how to automate them with minimal risks.

Incentives should also drive organizations to proactively address algorithmic bias. Conversely, operators who create and deploy algorithms that generate fairer outcomes should also be recognized by policymakers and consumers who will trust them more for their practices. When companies exercise effective algorithmic hygiene before, during, and after introducing algorithmic decision-making, they should be rewarded and potentially given a public-facing acknowledgement for best practices.

Finally, the last element encapsulated in a bias impact statement should involve the engagement of stakeholders who could help computer programmers in the selection of inputs and outputs of certain automated decisions.

Getting users engaged early and throughout the process will prompt improvements to the algorithms, which ultimately leads to improved user experiences. These three foundational elements for a bias impact statement are reflected in a discrete set of questions that operators should answer during the design phase to filter out potential biases Table 1. Operators of algorithms should also consider the role of diversity within their work teams, training data, and the level of cultural sensitivity within their decision-making processes.

Employing diversity in the design of algorithms upfront will trigger and potentially avoid harmful discriminatory effects on certain protected groups, especially racial and ethnic minorities. While the immediate consequences of biases in these areas may be small, the sheer quantity of digital interactions and inferences can amount to a new form of systemic bias.

The bias impact statement should not be an exhaustive tool. For algorithms with more at stake, ongoing review of their execution should be factored into the process. The goal here is to monitor for disparate impacts resulting from the model that border on unethical, unfair, and unjust decision-making.

When the process of identifying and forecasting the purpose of the algorithm is achieved, a robust feedback loop will aid in the detection of bias, which leads to the next recommendation promoting regular audits. The formal and regular auditing of algorithms to check for bias is another best practice for detecting and mitigating bias. While some audits may require technical expertise, this may not always be the case. Facial recognition software that misidentifies persons of color more than whites is an instance where a stakeholder or user can spot biased outcomes, without knowing anything about how the algorithm makes decisions.

Developing a regular and thorough audit of the data collected for the algorithmic operation, along with responses from developers, civil society, and others impacted by the algorithm, will better detect and possibly deter biases. The experience of government officials in Allegheny County reflects the importance of third-party auditing. The county took ownership of its use of the tool, worked collaboratively with the developer, and commissioned an independent evaluation of its direct and indirect effects on the maltreatment screening process, including decision accuracy, workload, and consistency.

County officials also sought additional independent research from experts to determine if the software was discriminating against certain groups.

In , the findings did identify some statistical imbalances, with error rates higher across racial and ethnic groups. White children who were scored at the highest-risk of maltreatment were less likely to be removed from their homes compared to African-American children with similar risk scores.

Facebook recently completed a civil rights audit to determine its handling of issues and individuals from protected groups. Recent actions by Facebook to ban white nationalist content or address disinformation campaigns are some of the results of these efforts.

Roundtable participants largely acknowledged the notion that organizations should employ cross-functional teams. Not all decisions will necessitate this type of cross-team review, but when these decisions carry risks of real harm, they should be employed. In the mitigation of bias and the management of the risks associated with the algorithm, collaborative work teams can compensate for the blind-spots often missed in smaller, segmented conversations and reviews.

Bringing together experts from various departments, disciplines, and sectors will help facilitate accountability standards and strategies for mitigating online biases, including from engineering, legal, marketing, strategy, and communications.

Even with all the precautionary measures listed above, there is still some risk that algorithms will make biased decisions.

People will continue to play a role in identifying and correcting biased outcomes long after an algorithm is developed, tested, and launched. While more data can inform automated decision-making, this process should complement rather than fully replace human judgement. We need to hire more and get them to focus on edge cases. As the U. Because the values of creators and users of algorithms shift over time, humans must arbitrate conflicts between outcomes and stated goals.

In addition to periodical audits, human involvement provides continuous feedback on the performance of bias mitigation efforts. As indicated throughout the paper, policymakers play a critical role in identifying and mitigating biases, while ensuring that the technologies continue to make positive economic and societal benefits.

Regulatory sandboxes are perceived as one strategy for the creation of temporary reprieves from regulation to allow the technology and rules surrounding its use to evolve together.

These policies could apply to algorithmic bias and other areas where the technology in question has no analog covered by existing regulations. Rather than broaden the scope of existing regulations or create rules in anticipation of potential harms, a sandbox allows for innovation both in technology and its regulation.

Even in a highly regulated industry, the creation of sandboxes where innovations can be tested alongside with lighter touch regulations can yield benefits.

For example, companies within the financial sector that are leveraging technology, or fintech, have shown how regulatory sandboxes can spur innovation in the development of new products and services.

Some of these activities mirror those of regular banks, and those would still fall under existing rules, but new ways of approaching tasks would be allowed within the sandbox. The U. Treasury recently reported not only on the benefits that countries that have adopted fintech regulatory sandboxes have realized, but recommended that the U.

Regulatory safe harbors could also be employed, where a regulator could specify which activities do not violate existing regulations. For example, Section of the Communications Decency Act removed liability from websites for the actions of their users, a provision widely credited with the growth of internet companies like Facebook and Google. Applying a similar approach to algorithms could exempt their operators from liabilities in certain contexts while still upholding protections in others where harms are easier to identify.

In line with the previous discussion on the use of certain protected attributes, safe harbors could be considered in instances where the collection of sensitive personal information is used for the specific purposes of bias detection and mitigation.

Widespread algorithmic literacy is crucial for mitigating bias. Given the increased use of algorithms in many aspects of daily life, all potential subjects of automated decisions would benefit from knowledge of how these systems function.

Just as computer literacy is now considered a vital skill in the modern economy, understanding how algorithms use their data may soon become necessary. The subjects of automated decisions deserve to know when bias negatively affects them, and how to respond when it occurs. Feedback from users can share and anticipate areas where bias can manifest in existing and future algorithms. Over time, the creators of algorithms may actively solicit feedback from a wide range of data subjects and then take steps to educate the public on how algorithms work to aid in this effort.

Public agencies that regulate bias can also work to raise algorithmic literacy as part of their missions. In both the public and private sector, those that stand to lose the most from biased decision-making can also play an active role in spotting it. In December , President Trump signed the First Step Act, new criminal justice legislation that encourages the usage of algorithms nationwide.

There is a likelihood that these algorithms will perpetuate racial and class disparities, which are already embedded in the criminal justice system. As a result, African-Americans and poor people in general will be more likely to serve longer prison sentences. As outlined in the paper, these types of algorithms should be concerning if there is not a process in place that incorporates technical diligence, fairness, and equity from design to execution.

Engagement with the social web means that customers and stakeholders are active participants rather than passive viewers. An example of these are consumer advocacy groups and groups that criticize companies e.

Each participating customer, non-customer, or citizen who is participating online via social media becomes a part of the marketing department or a challenge to the marketing effort as other customers read their positive or negative comments or reviews.

Getting consumers, potential consumers or citizens to be engaged online is fundamental to successful social media marketing. This can eventually be translated into buying behavior, or voting and donating behavior in a political context.

New online marketing concepts of engagement and loyalty have emerged which aim to build customer participation and brand reputation. Engagement in social media for the purpose of a social media strategy is divided into two parts.

The first is proactive, regular posting of new online content. This can be seen through digital photos , digital videos , text, and conversations. It is also represented through sharing of content and information from others via weblinks.

The second part is reactive conversations with social media users responding to those who reach out to your social media profiles through commenting or messaging. Traditional media such as physical newspapers, do give readers the option of sending a letter to the editor. Though, this is a relatively slow process, as the editorial board has to review the letter and decide if it is appropriate for publication. On the other hand, social media is participative and open; Participants are able to instantly share their views on brands, products, and services.

Traditional media gave control of message to the marketer, whereas social media shifts the balance to the consumer or citizen. Small businesses also use social networking sites as a promotional technique. Businesses can follow individuals social networking site uses in the local area and advertise specials and deals. These can be exclusive and in the form of \”get a free drink with a copy of this tweet\”.

This type of message encourages other locals to follow the business on the sites in order to obtain the promotional deal. In the process, the business is getting seen and promoting itself brand visibility.

Small businesses also use social networking sites to develop their own market research on new products and services. By encouraging their customers to give feedback on new product ideas, businesses can gain valuable insights on whether a product may be accepted by their target market enough to merit full production, or not. In addition, customers will feel the company has engaged them in the process of co-creation—the process in which the business uses customer feedback to create or modify a product or service the filling a need of the target market.

Such feedback can present in various forms, such as surveys, contests, polls, etc. Social networking sites such as LinkedIn, also provide an opportunity for small businesses to find candidates to fill staff positions.

Of course, review sites, such as Yelp, also help small businesses to build their reputation beyond just brand visibility. Positive customer peer reviews help to influence new prospects to purchase goods and services more than company advertising. In early , Nike introduced its Make It Count social media campaign.

The campaign kickoff began YouTubers Casey Neistat and Max Joseph launching a YouTube video, where they traveled 34, miles to visit 16 cities in 13 countries. They promoted the makeitcount hashtag, which millions of consumers shared via Twitter and Instagram by uploading photos and sending tweets. One of the main purposes of employing social media in marketing is as a communications tool that makes the companies accessible to those interested in their product and makes them visible to those who have no knowledge of their products.

It\’s the only form of marketing that can finger consumers at each and every stage of the consumer decision journey. Of the top 10 factors that correlate with a strong Google organic search, seven are social media dependent. This means that if brands are less or non-active on social media, they tend to show up less on Google searches.

Instagram has an interaction rate of 1. This has changed the ways that companies approach to interact with customers, as a substantial percentage of consumer interactions are now being carried out over online platforms with much higher visibility.

Customers can now post reviews of products and services, rate customer service, and ask questions or voice concerns directly to companies through social media platforms. Handling these interactions in a satisfactory manner can result in an increase of consumer trust. To both this aim and to fix the public\’s perception of a company, 3 steps are taken in order to address consumer concerns, identifying the extent of the social chatter, engaging the influencers to help, and developing a proportional response.

Twitter allows companies to promote their products in short messages known as tweets limited to characters which appear on followers\’ Home timelines. Facebook pages are far more detailed than Twitter accounts. They allow a product to provide videos, photos, longer descriptions, and testimonials where followers can comment on the product pages for others to see.

Facebook can link back to the product\’s Twitter page, as well as send out event reminders. LinkedIn , a professional business-related networking site, allows companies to create professional profiles for themselves as well as their business to network and meet others. Joining Facebook in , WhatsApp continues to operate as a separate app with a laser focus on building a messaging service that works fast and reliably anywhere in the world.

Started as an alternative to SMS, WhatsApp now supports sending and receiving a variety of media including text, photos, videos, documents, and location, as well as voice calls. WhatsApp messages and calls are secured with end-to-end encryption , meaning that no third party including WhatsApp can read or listen to them.

WhatsApp has a customer base of 1 billion people in over countries. WhatsApp is also used to send a series of bulk messages to their targeted customers using broadcast option.

Companies started using this to a large extent because it is a cost-effective promotional option and quick to spread a message.

As of , WhatsApp still not allow businesses to place ads in their app. Yelp consists of a comprehensive online index of business profiles. Businesses are searchable by location, similar to Yellow Pages. The website is operational in seven different countries, including the United States and Canada.

Business account holders are allowed to create, share, and edit business profiles. They may post information such as the business location, contact information, pictures, and service information.

The website further allows individuals to write, post reviews about businesses, and rate them on a five-point scale. Messaging and talk features are further made available for general members of the website, serving to guide thoughts and opinions. In May , Instagram had over million users.

The user engagement rate of Instagram was 15 times higher than of Facebook and 25 times higher than that of Twitter. Many brands are now heavily using this mobile app to boost their marketing strategy. Instagram can be used to gain the necessary momentum needed to capture the attention of the market segment that has an interest in the product offering or services. Moreover, it can be accessed by the Internet as well.

Thus, the marketers see it as a potential platform to expand their brands exposure to the public, especially the younger target group. On top of this, marketers do not only use social media for traditional Internet advertising, but they also encourage users to create attention for a certain brand. This generally creates an opportunity for greater brand exposure.

Many big names have already jumped on board: Starbucks , MTV , Nike , Marc Jacobs , and Red Bull are a few examples of multinationals that adopted the mobile photo app early. Fashion blogger Danielle Bernstein, who goes by weworewhat on Instagram, collaborated with Harper\’s Bazaar to do a piece on how brands are using Instagram to market their products, and how bloggers make money from it.

Bernstein, who currently has one and a half million followers on Instagram, and whose \”outfit of the day\” photos on Snapchat get tens of thousands of screenshots, explained that for a lot of her sponsored posts, she must feature the brand in a certain number of posts, and often cannot wear a competitor\’s product in the same picture. Instagram has proven itself a powerful platform for marketers to reach their customers and prospects through sharing pictures and brief messages.

The company can present a more personal picture of their brand, and by doing so the company conveys a better and true picture of itself.

The idea of Instagram pictures lies on on-the-go, a sense that the event is happening right now, and that adds another layer to the personal and accurate picture of the company. In fact, Thomas Rankin, co-founder and CEO of the program Dash Hudson, stated that when he approves a blogger\’s Instagram post before it is posted on the behalf of a brand his company represents, his only negative feedback is if it looks too posed.

We\’re trying to create a moment. Snapchat is a popular messaging and picture exchanging application that was created in by three students at Stanford University named Evan Spiegel, Bobby Murphy, and Reggie Brown.

The application was first developed to allow users to message back and forth and to also send photographs that are only available from 1—10 seconds until they are no longer available.

The app was an instant hit with social media members and today there are up to million people using snapchat every single day.

YouTube is another popular avenue; advertisements are done in a way to suit the target audience. The type of language used in the commercials and the ideas used to promote the product reflect the audience\’s style and taste. Also, the ads on this platform are usually in sync with the content of the video requested, this is another advantage YouTube brings for advertisers. Certain ads are presented with certain videos since the content is relevant. Promotional opportunities such as sponsoring a video is also possible on YouTube, \”for example, a user who searches for a YouTube video on dog training may be presented with a sponsored video from a dog toy company in results along with other videos.

Companies can pay YouTube for a special \”channel\” which promotes the companies products or services. Websites such as Delicious , Digg , Slashdot , Diigo , Stumbleupon , and Reddit are popular social bookmarking sites used in social media promotion. Each of these sites is dedicated to the collection, curation , and organization of links to other websites that users deem to be of good quality.

This process is \” crowdsourced \”, allowing amateur social media network members to sort and prioritize links by relevance and general category. Due to the large user bases of these websites, any link from one of them to another, the smaller website may in a flash crowd , a sudden surge of interest in the target website. In addition to user-generated promotion, these sites also offer advertisements within individual user communities and categories.

Platforms like LinkedIn create an environment for companies and clients to connect online. Blogs can be updated frequently and are promotional techniques for keeping customers , and also for acquiring followers and subscribers who can then be directed to social network pages. Online communities can enable a business to reach the clients of other businesses using the platform. To allow firms to measure their standing in the corporate world, sites enable employees to place evaluations of their companies.


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